The Effect of Using Celebrity Endorser Cristiano Ronaldo as an Advertising Model on the Shopee Brand Image

Main Article Content

Fajar Juniardi
Sekartaji

Abstract

In advertising there are many strategies in building an image, one of which is the use of celebrity endorsers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using celebrity endorser Cristiano Ronaldo as an advertising model on Shopee brand image. Shopee is an e-commerce site that was founded in 2015. E-Commerce is a business transaction that takes place using an electronic network system such as the internet. To be accepted among the Indonesian people, Shopee runs a C2C (customer to customer) mobile marketplace business. The method used is to conduct a survey that will be given to Shopee users who have seen Cristiano Ronaldo's advertisement as a Shopee celebrity endorser. This research design has a purpose to find the influence between two variables, namely the variable (X) is a celebrity endorser while the variable (Y) is the brand image. Respondents who were involved in this study were Shopee users with male or female criteria and aged 16-30 years who lived in Jabodetabek. Sampling in this study was conducted in a non-probability way. Using the purposive method with a sample of 100 respondents. The results of the research that has been carried out with validity and reliability tests are valid and reliable, and according to the calculation of simple linear regression analysis, it can be seen that Celebrity endorser (X) has a significant effect on Brand Image (Y). From this test, it can also be seen that Celebrity Endorser has a coefficient of determination between Brand Image of 70.8%, Celebrity Endorser variable affects Brand Image. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Celebrity Endorser (X) has a very strong influence on Brand Image (Y).

Article Details

How to Cite
Juniardi, F., & Sekartaji, S. (2024). The Effect of Using Celebrity Endorser Cristiano Ronaldo as an Advertising Model on the Shopee Brand Image. PROPAGANDA, 4(1), 24–33. https://doi.org/10.37010/prop.v4i1.1261
Section
Articles

References

Abadi, Marini Fildzah. 2020. “Pengaruh Celebrity Endorser Cristiano Ronaldo Terhadap Sikap Mahasiswa Surabaya Pada Iklan Shopee 9.9 Super Shopping Day.” Undergraduate Thesis.

Amos, Clinton, Gary Holmes, and David Strutton. 2008. “Exploring the Relationship between Celebrity Endorser Effects and Advertising Effectiveness.” International Journal of Advertising 27(2):209–34. doi: 10.1080/02650487.2008.11073052.

Andrew, Muhammad. 2019. “E-Service Quality and Brand Image on Buying Interest: A Study of E-Service Quality and Brand Image on Shopee E-Service Quality Dan Citra Merek Terhadap Minat Beli: Studi E-Service Quality Dan Citra Merek Shopee.” Jurnal Sekretaris Dan Administrasi Bisnis 3(1):23–38.

Atkin, Charles, and Martin Block. 1983. “Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers.” Journal of Advertising Research 23(1):57–61.

Belch, George E., and Michael A. Belch. 2009. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Blackwell, R. D., P. W. Miniard, and J. F. Engel. 2006. Consumer Behaviour. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Come Make History With Us: Shopee Careers. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2021, from https://careers.shopee.co.id/about/

dailysocial.id. 2019. “Tren Penggunaan E-Commerce Berdasarkan Gender.” Www.Dailysocial.Id. Retrieved July 31, 2021 (https://dailysocial.id/post/e-ecommerce-di-indonesia-2019).

Darmansyah, Muhartini Salim, and Syamsul Bachri. 2014. “Pengaruh Celebrity Endorser Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Produk Di Indonesia (Penelitian Online).” Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen 12(2):230–38.

Gultom, Shelma Bertari, and Devilia Sari. 2019. “Pengaruh Brand Ambassador Blackpink Terhadap Brand Image E-Commerce Shopee The Ifluenced Of Blackpink as Brand Ambassador Toward Brand Image at E-Commerce Platform Shopee.” Universitas Telkom 6(2):4047.

Gupta, Tarun. 2014. “Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Purchase Decision: A Study Among Youth of Bareilly.” International Journal of Management Research & Review 4(3):2249–7196.

Ghozali, I. 2016. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariete Dengan Program IBM SPSS 23. edited by 8th. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Hakimi, B. Y., A. Abedniy, and M. N. Zaeim. 2011. “Investigate the Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Brand Image.” European Journal of Scientific Research 58:116–32.

Handayani, Oktavia, Nur Atnan, and Nasrial. 2019. “Pengaruh Iklan TV Shopee Versi ‘Goyang Shopee 9.9 Super Shopping Day’ Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Melalui Aplikasi Shopee (Survey Pada Masyarakat Di Kota Bandung).” E-Proceeding of Management 6(1):1634–44.

Herlissha, Novita. 2017. “Pengaruh Brand Image, Brand Trust Dan Reference Group Terhadap Brand Loyalty Aplikasi Pesan Instan Line (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Bangka Belitung Angkatan 2013-2015).”

Javalgi, Rajshekhar, and Rosemary Ramsey. 2001. “Strategic Issues of E-Commerce as an Alternative Global Distribution System.” International Marketing Review 18:376–91. doi: 10.1108/02651330110398387.

Kanzanitra, Della Alifia. 2019. “‘Pengaruh Brand Ambassador “Blackpink” Dan Brand Image “Shopee” Terhadap Minat Akses Aplikasi E-Commerce’ (Studi Pada Komunitas Seventeen Carat Malang).” Thesis (Undergraduate (S1)).

Kotler, P., and Keller. 2009. Manajemen Pemasaran Jilid 2. 13th ed. Erlangga.

Lou, Chen, and Shupei Yuan. 2019. “Influencer Marketing: How Message Value and Credibility Affect Consumer Trust of Branded Content on Social Media.” Journal of Interactive Advertising 19(1):58–73. doi: 10.1080/15252019.2018.1533501.

Marselina, Dian, and Edward H. Siregar. 2017. “Pengaruh Celebrity Endorser Terhadap Brand Image Pada Kosmetik Wardah Di Bogor Produk Dengan Endorser . Brand Image Adalah Persepsi Terhadap Merek Yang Direfleksi.” Jurnal Manajemen Dan Organisasi VIII(1):15–27.

McCracken, Grant. 1989. “Who Is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process.” Journal of Consumer Research 16(3):310–21. doi: 10.1086/209217.

Micom, RO. (2017). Nielsen: Iklan Online Mendorong Konsumen Mencari Informasi. Media

Indonesia.com, 28 Maret 2018. Dari: http://mediaindonesia.com/read/detail/114724- nielsen-iklan-online-mendorong-konsumen-mencari-informasi

Mondari, Dewi. 2017. “PENGARUH SHIREEN SUNGKAR SEBAGAI CELEBRITY ENDORSER TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN FAIR & LOVELY PADA MAHASISWI BERLATAR ISLAM DI YOGYAKARTA TAHUN 2017.” Thesis SKR FISIP 595.

Mudiantono, Septiyo Aji Nugroho. 2013. “Analisis Pengaruh Daya Tarik Iklan Dan Kekuatan Celebrity Endorser Terhadap Brand Awareness Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Brand Attitude Handphone Nokia.” Diponogoro Journal Of Management 2(3):1–11.

Muthohar, Muchsin, and Amin Ramadhan Triatmaja. 2013. “Pengaruh Endorser Ulama Terhadap Sikap Dan Minat Beli Konsumen.” Jurnal Bisnis Dan Ekonomi 19(1):86–99.

Neuman, W. Lawrence. 2013. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Vol. 30.

Rahmawati, Nur. 2013. “Pengaruh Penggunaan Celebrity Endorser Dalam Iklan Sabun Mandi Lux Terhadap Perilaku Konsumen Di Kelurahan Sungai Dama Samarinda.” EJournal Ilmu Komunikasi, 2013, 1 (1): 362- 373 ISSN 0000-0000, Ejournal.Ilkom.Fisip-Unmul.Org 1(1):362–73.

Royan, Frans M. 2004. Marketing Selebrities. PT Elex Media Komputindo.

Shimp, T. A. 2003. Periklanan Promosi?: Aspek Tambahan Komunikasi Pemasaran Terpadu Jilid I. 5th ed. Erlangga.

__________ 2004. Periklanan Dan Promosi: Aspek Tambahan Komunikasi Terpadu - Jilid 2. Erlangga.

__________ 2007. Integrated Marketing Communication In Advertising And Promotion. 7th ed. Thomson South-Western.

__________ 2010. Advertising Promotion, and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. 8th ed. South-Western College Publication.

Seno, Diana, and Bryan Lukas. 2007. “The Equity Effect of Product Endorsement by Celebrities: A Conceptual Framework from a Co-Branding Perspective.” European Journal of Marketing 41:121–34. doi: 10.1108/03090560710718148.

Spry, Amanda, Ravi Pappu, and T. Bettina Cornwell. 2011. “Celebrity Endorsement, Brand Credibility and Brand Equity.” European Journal of Marketing 45(6):882–909. doi: 10.1108/03090561111119958.

Stefani, Selfi. 2013. “Analisis Pengaruh Iklan Televisi, Celebrity Endorser, Kualitas Produk Dan Citra Merek Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Pada Produk Kosmetik Berlabel Halal ‘Wardah.’” 1–179.

Sugiyono. 2010. Statistika Untuk Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta.

________ 2017. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, Dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Sutabri, Tata. 2012. Analisa Sistem Informasi. Yogyakarta: Andi Yogyakarta.

Sutisna. 2002. Perilaku Konsumen Dan Pemasaran. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Tim Publikasi Katadata. 2019. “Shopee Kuasai Pasar Perempuan.” Www.Katadata.Co.Id. Retrieved May 26, 2021 (https://katadata.co.id/timpublikasikatadata/berita/5e9a4e55a5ef3/shopee-kuasai-pasar-perempuan).

Ummaroh. 2014. “Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Dalam Membentuk Loyalitas Konsumen.” (Studi Kasus Pada PT. TIKI Jalur Nugraha Ekakurir (JNE) Di Pademangan Jakarta Utara.

Vermaat, and Shelly Cashman. 2007. Discovering Computers: Menjelajah Dubia Komputer Fundamental. 3rd ed. Jakarta: Salemba: Infotek.

Wijaya, Finna Anastasia, and Sugiono Sugiharto. 2015. “Pengaruh Celebrity Endorsementterhadap Purchase Intention Denganbrand Image Sebagai Variabel Intervening (Studi Kasus Iklan Produk Perawatan Kecantikan Pond’S).” Jurnal Manajemen Pemasaran 9(1):16–22. doi: 10.9744/pemasaran.9.1.16-22.