The Effect of Unemployment, Poverty, and Human Development Index (HDI) on Income Gap in Districts or Cities in Banten Province for the 2019-2023 Period


  • Alya Salsabila Sultan Agung Tirtayasa University
  • Naura Sultania Azaria Sultan Agung Tirtayasa University
  • Novita Ramdhani Sultan Agung Tirtayasa University
  • Amanda Sultan Agung Tirtayasa University
  • Angelicha Christina Sultan Agung Tirtayasa University



unemployment, poverty, human development index, income inequality, Banten province


This study aims to analyze the impact of unemployment, poverty, and the Human Development Index (HDI) on income inequality in the regencies and cities of Banten Province during the period 2019-2023. This research uses secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS). The population in this study includes all regencies and cities in Banten Province, with the sample being time series data from 8 regencies/cities over five years. The research method used is panel data regression with the STATA 14 application. The research instrument includes independent variables such as unemployment, poverty, and HDI, and the dependent variable is income inequality measured by the Gini ratio. The results show that unemployment and HDI have a significant influence on income inequality, while poverty does not have a significant effect. Increases in unemployment and HDI tend to increase income inequality. Additionally, the study found that improvements in HDI, including enhancements in educational and health infrastructure, contribute to the increase in income inequality. These findings have important implications for economic policies to reduce income inequality in Banten Province.


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How to Cite

Salsabila, A., Azaria, N. S., Ramdhani, N., Amanda, A., & Christina, A. (2024). The Effect of Unemployment, Poverty, and Human Development Index (HDI) on Income Gap in Districts or Cities in Banten Province for the 2019-2023 Period. LITERATUS, 6(1), 155–166.
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